Apple II GCR
The Apple II provides very fine-grained control of the drive from software, so various kinds of schemes were devised.
A discussion of how the Disk II works: http://www.metafilter.com/114962/jmp-TRIGSPIKES#4301468
There are two "standard" Apple II GCR formats, 13-sector and 16-sector. Both are explained in detail in Beneath Apple DOS.
Prince of Persia and other software used a format called RWTS18, designed by Roland Gustafsson to pack the maximum possible data onto a disk. Some details can be seen here:
Not everything in that old cracking guide is accurate. For example, normal-speed drives were used to write RWTS18 disks.
More will be added soon.